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Possible Indicators of Dyslexia

Many of the difficulties listed below are common during a child's first year or two at school. However, if a group of these symptoms persists beyond the time when the average child has grown out of them, they may indicate dyslexia, and expert advice should be sought.

Reading and spelling

Confusion of letters similar in shape: e.g. d / b; u / n

Confusion of letters similar in sound: e.g. v, f, th; also vowels

Reversals: e.g. was / saw

Transposals: e.g. left / felt; auction / caution

Omission or insertion of words

Repetition of word or phrase

Changing sequence of words:  she is / is she

Confusion of small words:  of, for, from

Bizarre spelling


Difficulty in keeping correct place on line

Difficulty in switching from end of line to beginning of next one

No expression, or intonation in wrong place

Difficulty in understanding a passage even if correctly read

Faulty auditory sequencing:  Roman merains (remains)

Mispronouncing some words:  renember

Difficulty in "sounding out" unfamiliar words


Foreshortening: rember (remember)

Fusion:    (up)

Repetition of a word or words

Capitals left out, or in the wrong places

i's not dotted, t's not crossed, l's crossed

Badly formed letters or, if shape is correct, formed in unconventional way

Difficulty in keeping on the line

Omission of punctuation, confusion over punctuation and syntax

Odd pencil grip

Difficulty in copying from blackboard

Other indications

Late in learning to speak

Difficulty in repeating long words:  e.g. unanimous, preliminary

Confusion between:  right/left; east/west; up/down; etc

Difficulty in sequencing: alphabet, months of year, numbers, words in a sentence

Difficulty in learning tables, or doing mental arithmetic

Slow in looking up words in a dictionary

Poor concentration and memory

Difficulty in interpreting other symbols: figures, notes in music, etc

Late in learning to tell time, and in such things as tying shoelaces, etc

Difficulty in understanding concepts such as:  in/on/under; yesterday/tomorrow

Other poor readers or weak spellers in the family.

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